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The machinery e3carbon uses in their facilities is built in the UK. All equipment involving specialised heating processes comes from the CDS Group based in Stoke-on-Trent, UK. 

CDS was Founded in 1983 by current Chairman Terry Dunne. CDS originally specialised in devising complete ceramic drying solutions for a range of organisations and remits.  

It has always been our ethos to work on projects from their initial planning stages through to their final completion; this has allowed us space to innovate; delivering products that supersede industry trends by their very design.

It’s this commitment to continual redevelopment that has lead us to being recognised as a worldwide authority in the field of thermal processing technology.


At the forefront of innovation and development of thermal technology, CDS has developed, patented and introduced into the marketplace a new concept of drying process: R-O2 Technology.

This drying method uses superheated steam as the heating medium to replace the traditional air/oxygen procedures of drying. This dramatically improves the efficiency of the drying process whilst using a safe and invisible dry gas, used at atmospheric pressure.

The R-O2 thermal advantages are revolutionising the process of the drying industry. Achieving validated energy saving against conventional systems, minimal percentage drying losses of product and tremendous advantages in drying cycle times and efficiencies.


R-O2 dryers are uniquely designed to operate in either a conventional mode, a super-heated steam mode or a combination of both to optimise the drying cycles.

R-O2 Drying Advantages include:

  • Specific heat of steam is twice that of normal air, hence it can transfer more than twice the amount of heat for the same mass air flow.

  • Viscosity of steam is approximately half that of air at the same temperature creating a much greater effect, in particular on difficultly-shaped products.

  • R-O2 dryers are designed to operate in a direct ring mode if required. A fully modulating air valve is added to the burner to give stoichiometric control and minimise the oxygen input into the system during the main drying phase.


  • The steam is generated from the moisture contained only within the product.

  • When water boils & becomes steam its volume increases by a factor of 1,670.

  • As the water evaporates, each Kg of water occupies a volume of 1.67 m3.

  • R-O2 Dryers operate on full recirculation so no new air is required to enter the system.

  • As both the recirculation mix and the product get hotter, 1.67m3 of increasingly humid air is vented as each Kg of water is evaporated. This process continues until the Dryer is virtually free of air which is replaced with dry superheated steam.

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